TABLE 1 - HARDINESS OBSERVATIONS

IN PALM SPECIES

Compiled by

Larry R. Noblick, Ph.D., Collections Manager, Montgomery Botanical Center

and Associate Researcher, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, FL

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The symbols are as follows: a " O ", a flag ,means that the plant came through the cold spell undamaged, with "flying colors"; a " J " means that it was slightly damaged; a " K " means that it was moderately damaged; a " L " means that the plant was severely damaged, sometimes to the point of near death, but recovered; a " M " means that the plant obviously "bombed out" and did not survive; finally a " u " indicates what its cold hardiness limits are thought to be and in some cases these limits may have to be re-evaluated.

Species

CEN

-8

-7

-6

-4.5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

FAH

<=18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Acanthophoenix rubra

M

Aceolorraphe wrightii

18

u

O

O

Acrocomia aculeata

LJO

Acrocomia totai

O

Actinorhytis catapparia

u

O

Aiphanes aculeata (= caryotifolia)

ML

J

Aiphanes lindendiana

ML

Aiphanes minima (= acanthophylla, erosa)

Mu

J

Allagoptera arenaria

J

MO

O

Archontophoenix alexandrae

ML

J

Archontophoenix alexandrae var. beatricae

MLK

K

Archontophoenix cunninghamiana

M

LK

Archontophoenix purpurea

u

J

Areca aliciae

M

J

O

Areca catechu

M

L

Areca latiloba

O

Areca triandra

L

J

O

Areca vestiaria

O

Arenga caudata

K

Arenga engleri

u

O

KJO

Arenga pinnata

L

ML

M

Arenga porphyrocarpa

L

Arenga tremula

L

L

Arenga undulatifolia

K

Arenga wrightii

M

Attalea humilis

J

Astrocaryum mexicanum

L

Bactris gasipaes

L

J

Bactris major

L

Beccariophoenix madagascariensis

J

Bismarckia nobilis (intermediate)

L

K

Bismarckia noblilis (silver select)

LK

LJO

O

Borassus aethiopum

J

O

Brahea aculeata

O

Brahea armata

0

O

O

Brahea brandegeei

u

O

Brahea clara

O

O

Brahea dulcis

O

Brahea edulis

u

O

Brahea elegans

J

Brahea nitida

O

O

Butia capitata

10

O

O

O

Butia eriospatha

O

Butia paraguayensis

O

Calamus caryotoides

O

Calamus hollrungii

O

Calamus usitatus

O

Calytrocalyx sp.

O

Carpentaria acuminata

KL

u

Caryota cumingii

M

Caryota mitis

L

ML

L

K

J

Caryota ochlandra

ML

O

Caryota urens

ML

O

O

Ceroxylon alpinum

O

Ceroxylon quindiuense

O

Ceroxylon vogelianum

O

Chamaedorea brachypoda

LJ

O

Chamaedorea cataractarum

L

O

Species

CEN

-8

-7

-6

-4.5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

FAH

<=18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii

M

Chamaedorea fragrans

M

Chamaedorea geonomiformis

M

Chamaedorea glaucifolia

MJO

O

Chamaedorea graminifolia

M

Chamaedorea klotschiana

MO

Chamaedorea liebmannii

M

Chamaedorea metallica

O

Chamaedorea microspadix

J

O

O

Chamaedorea oblongata

M

Chamaedorea oreophila

M

Chamaedorea pinnatifrons

M

Chamaedorea plumosa

O

O

Chamaedora pumila

O

Chamaedorea radicalis

u

O

O

O

Chamaedorea schiedeana

M

Chamaedorea seifrizii

LJ

O

Chamaedorea stolonifera

JO

O

Chamaedorea tenella

M

Chamaedorea tepejilote

Mu

J

Chamaerops humilis

0/9

uO

O

O

Chambeyronia macrocarpa

L

O

Chuniophoenix hainanensis

O

O

Coccothrinax argentata

MLO

J

Coccothrinax argentea

M

Coccothrinax barbadensis

J

MKO

O

Coccothrinax crinita

L

MLO

Coccothrinax eggersiana

ML

Coccothrinax fragrans

M

Coccothrinax martii

ML

Coccothrinax miraguama

MLJ

O

Coccothrinax yuraguana

M

Cocos nucifera

MLJ

J

J

Cocos nucifera "Green Maypan"

K

J

Copernicia alba

K

ML

O

Copernica baileyana

K

K

O

Copernicia berteroana

ML

J

Copernicia curtissii

K

Copernicia ekmanii

L

Copernicia fallaense

J

O

Copernicia glabrescens

LO

Copernicia gigas

L

Copernicia hospita

J

O

Copernicia macroglossa

J

MJ

Copernicia prunifera

MO

Corypha umbraculifera

L

MJ

Corypha utan

M

Cryosophila guargara

J

Cryosophila stauracantha

J

Cryosophila warscewiczii

ML

O

Cyphophoenix nucele

J

Daemonorops angustifolia

K

O

Dictyosperma album

ML

M

J

J

Drymophloeus beguinii

MuJ

J

Dypsis cabadae

L

L

J

Dypsis decaryi

L

M

O

Dypsis decipiens

J

Dypsis lanceolata

J

Species

CEN

-8

-7

-6

-4.5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

FAH

<=18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Dypsis lutescens

L

LJ

O

Dypsis madagascariensis

M

LK

J

Dypsis pinnatifrons

u

O

Elaeis guineensis

MLJ

J

Euterpe edulis

M

J

Euterpe precatoria

O

Gastrococos crispa

J

Gaussia attenuata

M

Gaussia maya

ML

K

J

Guihaia argyrata

16

L

O

O

Gulubia microspadix

J

Hedyscepe canterburyana

M

Heterospathe elata

ML

Howeia belmoreana

M

Howeia fosteriana

K

MLK

O

Hyophorbe indica

M

J

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis

L

L

K

Hyophorbe verschaffeltiana

ML

O

J

Iguanura wallichiana

J

Iriartea gigantea

J

Johannesteijsmannia altifrons

O

Johannesteijsmannia magnifica

O

Jubaea chilensis

-4

L

O

Kerrodoxa elegans

K

Laccospadix australasica

O

Latania loddigesii

L

u

J

Latania lontaroides

L

u

L

Latania verschaffeltii

M

J

Lepidorrachis mooreana

O

Licuala elegans

J

Licuala grandis

J

MLJ

J

Licuala peltata

MJ

O

Licuala ramsayi

J

O

Licuala spinosa

LK

KJ

O

Linospadix monostachya

O

Livistona australis

JO

O

Livistona benthamii

JO

Livistona chinensis

LO

O

Livistona decipiens

O

O

Livistona drudei

O

JO

O

Livistona fulva

K

Livistona jenkinstana

J

Livistona mariae

JO

Livistona muelleri

J

MJ

O

Livistona rigida

JO

J

Livistona robinsoniana

O

J

Livistona rotundifolia

L

L

J

Livistona saribus

J

O

J

J

Lodoicea maldivica

J

Lytocaryum weddellianum

MJO

Marojejya darianii

M

J

O

Mauritia flexuosa

M

Nannorrhops ritchiana

-4/10

u

O

Nenga pumila

O

Nephrosperma vanhoutteanum

M

Normanbya normanbyi

O

Orbignya cohune

O

Orbignya phalerata

JO

Species

CEN

-8

-7

-6

-4.5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

FAH

<=18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Phoenix acaulis

J

O

Phoenix canariensis

10

ML

u

O

Phoenix dactylifera

J

O

Phoenix hanceana

O

Phoenix loureirii

O

Phoenix paludosa

L

J

Phoenix pusilla

KJ

O

Phoenix reclinata

K

JO

O

Phoenix roebelenii

J

K

JO

O

O

Phoenix rupicola

JO

O

Phoenix sylvestris

-4

K

J

JO

Phoenix theophrasti

J

O

Physokentia dennisii

J

Physokentia insolida

J

Phytelephas macrocarpa

M

Pinanga coronata (P. kuhlii)

ML

J

Polyandrococos caudescens

K

O

Prestoea montana

M

O

Pritchardia beccariana

L

K

O

Pritchardia pacifica

M

Pritchardia thurstonii

ML

Pritchardia hildebrandii

K

O

Pritchardia vuystekiana

K

Pseudophoenix sargentii

L

JO

Pseudophoenix sargentii ssp. saonae

M

Pseudophoenix vinifera

M

Ptychosperma elegans

Mu

O

Ptychosperma macarthuri

M

Ptychosperma microcarpum

L

Raphia farinifera

L

Raphia taedigera

M

K

Ravenea madagascariensis

K

O

Ravenea rivularis

J

O

Ravenea sambiranensis

K

O

Ravenea xerophila

O

Reinhardtia gracilis

M

O

Reinhardtia latisecta

O

Reinhardtia simplex

O

Rhapidophyllum hystrix

-5

u

O

O

O

Rhapis excelsa

O

O

Rhapis humilis

O

Rhapis multifida

O

Rhapis subtilis

O

Rhopalostylis baueri

ML

Rhopalostylis sapida

JO

Roystonea oleracea

M

Roystonea regia

MLK

O

Sabal bermudana

O

O

Sabal causiarum

u

O

Sabal domingensis

O

Sabal etonia

5

u

O

Sabal guatemalensis

O

Sabal maritima

JO

Sabal mauritiiformis

J

JO

O

Sabal mexicana

10

u

O

O

Sabal minor

5

u

O

O

Sabal palmetto

10

u

O

O

Sabal parviflora

O

J

Species

CEN

-8

-7

-6

-4.5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

FAH

<=18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Sabal yapa

MJO

O

Salacca zalacca

M

O

Satakentia liukiuensis

u

J

Scheelea butryracea

J

Scheelea liebmanii

J

O

Scheelea robusta

J

Scheelea rostrata

L

O

Schippia concolor

J

O

Serenoa repens

15

u

O

Syagrus amara

LJ

J

Syagrus botryophora

K

Syagrus coronata

LKJ

J

Syagrus x costae

K

Syagrus oleracea

K

O

Syagrus picrophylla

L

O

Syagrus pseudococos

L

J

Syagrus romanzoffiana

LKJ

LO

Syagrus sancona

L

Syagrus schizophylla

L

ML

Syagrus stenopetala

J

Synechanthus fibrosus

MJ

O

O

Thrinax morrisii

JO

O

Thrinax parviflora

MJ

O

Thrinax radiata

KJ

O

Trachycarpus fortunei

0

J

O

Trachycarpus martianus

J

O

Trachycarpus takil

O

Trachycarpus wagnerianus

10

u

O

O

Trithrinax acanthocoma

5

u

O

O

Trithrinax brasiliensis

O

Trithrinax campestris

O

O

O

Veitchia merrillii

M

K

Veitchia montgomeryana

L

M

J

J

Wallichia disticha

J

L

J

Washingtonia filifera

0

O

O

Washingtonia robusta

J

O

Wodyetia bifurcata

LJ

O

Zombia antillarum

LJ

LJO

O

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Revised May 18, 1998